- Putting it all together
- Definitions and Terms
- Color Space and ICC profile
- Camera Processes
- Output Processes, Web, Screen, and Print
- My printer output does not match my !?#* screen! Now What?
- Getting Control: Step 1 Analysis
- Getting Control: Step 2 Data Collection
- Getting Control Step 3: Taking Action
- Assignment: Printing Ring-Around (Total recommended time 4-6 hours)
- Assignment: Repeat Ring Around for Brightness…(Total recommended time 1-2 hours)
- Challenge Images
Putting it all together:
Congratulations on getting to the final week. I hope that your discovery and learning have been exactly what you had hoped for and that the concepts and assignments have not been too difficult. This week we are going to pull all of the class together into finished images. We want you to use all of the things you have learned and push yourself a little and use and extend out from the techniques we have practiced to produce output. The theme of the week is getting a finished product out the door so to speak. The end results need to have a place to be displayed no matter if it is the web displayed on a monitor, a print in your office or a gallery all of the work we have been doing thus far leads us to this point.
Definitions and Terms:
Coming together and using the same terms will help sort out the confusion !
We all need to be speaking the same language and sometimes parsing the words makes for more confusion. For the purpose of this class we are going to try hard to stick to the definitions shown below.
The complete range or scope of something.
For color photography the Gamut is the range and depth of the color space you are working in at any given time. Each color space has it’s own Gamut and most of the diagrams you see for color spaces show a triangle or other geometric shape that defines the boundaries of the color space upon some curved or horse shoe shaped color grid.
A color space is a specific organization of colors used in combination with a physical device profile to create digital or analog colors.
For color photography the color space is a profile mapped color gamut for any specific piece of hardware. While there is no RGB color space , examples of a color space are aRGB , sRGB, Pro Photo RGB, which are all models of RGB color; CMYK is used to model print outputs and CIELAB is most closely related to the human perception of color. These spaces define how individual devices relate the information in the image file to real world colors.
ICC Color Profile:
Set of data that characterizes a color input or output device, or a color space, according to standards promoted by the International Color Consortium(ICC). (AKA – Device Profile/Color Profile)
Profiles describe the color attributes of a particular device or viewing requirement by defining a mapping between the device source or target color space and a profile connection space. Much like the function of a book cover, an ICC Profile tells us:
- The darkest tones and colors the file can hold;
- The lightest tones and colors the file can hold;
- The range of colors (gamut) that the file is capable of showing;
- The distribution and relationship between each of those tones and colors.
A standard RGB color space created cooperatively by HP and Microsoft in 1996 for use on monitors, printers and the Internet
This is the smallest color space in general usage and it is considered by many to be the default color space for un-managed color profile images. If you save to sRGB your images for the web will look their best since most of the popular web browsers in use today will display the image file correctly.
Adobe RGB (1998) is an RGB color space developed by Adobe Systems, Inc. in 1998
It was designed to encompass most of the colors achievable on CMYK color printers, but by using RGB primary colors on a device such as a computer display. The Adobe RGB (1998) color space encompasses roughly 50% of the visible colors specified by the Lab color space – improving upon the gamut of the sRGB color space, primarily in cyan-green hues. In a nutshell aRGB is a bigger color space than sRGB.
Also known as ROMM RGB (Reference Output Medium Metric), is an output referred RGB color space developed by Kodak.
It offers an especially large gamut designed for use with photographic output in mind. The ProPhoto RGB color space encompasses over 90% of possible surface colors in the CIE L*a*b* color space, and 100% of likely occurring real world surface colors, making ProPhoto even larger than the Wide Gamut of aRGB color space. One of the downsides to this color space is that approximately 13% of the represent-able colors are imaginary colors that do not exist and are not visible or printable colors.
Alright, you have a camera and you captured some images what the heck just happened to them? In most DSLR and higher end cameras today the image is stored in a buffer area on the camera while the device decides what to do next. What the camera actually does depends partly on your choices; if you chose to save the image as RAW then the data from the sensor is given a file name and written to the memory card as a RAW file.
If on the other hand you chose to capture in JPEG, then the sensor data is routed in the camera to the image processor where the selected color space algorithm is used along with the camera profile stored in the firmware to create a JPEG output image which is then given a name and stored on the memory card. When you Shoot Raw with JPEG it causes both processes to occur and increases the amount of storage needed as well as the processing time. There are workflow advantages and dis-advantages to each of these choices. Personal preference and knowledge base have a more to do with this choice than need. Personally, I do not need to shoot JPEG but I will when I know the final destination is web or social media.
Images that are created in Camera Raw do not have a default color space assigned to them.
When you shoot in Camera Raw you are getting the entire data set from your digital camera that the image sensor captured. This gives you the unique choice of which color space you want to convert the image into and it gives you the options of doing multiple conversions on the same image.
JPEG or .JPG:
(Joint Photographic Experts Group) Images produced by the camera from the raw sensor data and converted via algorithm stored in the camera firmware.
Most modern DSLR cameras allow you to produce JPEG files directly in the camera as a part of the shooting process. These files are automatically assigned a color space by the camera when the image is converted from the raw sensor data to a file by the camera after you click the shutter. You usually have the choice of which RGB color space you are converting to as more now cameras have sRGB and aRGB colors available. Check your camera settings menu to see if you can set the color space and what the current settings are. Your matching of the default color space settings from your camera to Photoshop’s default color space is the desired starting point.
Output Process: Web, Screen, and Print
One of the frequent questions we get asked here at Curvemeister central is: “Why does the image in Photoshop look so different from the image on the web?” The simple answers is “because” after that it gets complicated pretty fast. OK, not so complicated but it does require more than a sideways glance to get to the bottom of the problem.
Color Management! There I said it…it is the 800 Lb. gorilla no one wants to look at that sits on your desk creating bad outputs on your computer and or printer. The reason your images might not look the best on the web or in print is color management. Something is broken between the image file and the output/display of the image file.
Color managed Browsers:
Currently, up to date web browsers are starting to support color profiles within images when they are attached. Firefox By Mozilla does the best job of this so far and as of August 2014 Google Chrome has a known bug where any image with an attached profile may be processed wrong while Internet Explorer supports image profiles but it is inconsistent and incomplete in it’s implementation. Other browsers need to be researched on a case by case basis.
In general: Web browsers assume no profile and display in sRGB by default. Firefox and I.E. will look for a profile and display the image using it if possible. Chrome will look for the profile but unless you use some command line parameters on start up, chrome will incorrectly display your profile embedded images.
My printer output does not match my !?#* screen! Now What?
Personally, I have thrown up my hands and gnashed my teeth and torn more than a few photos in half over this process. I have only recently completed a public showing of my work in printed and framed form and that process forced me to come to grips with the printed output from my systems.
I know that most of you would rather push a camel through the eye of a needle than try to make a good print out of your home printer or processor of choice. I also know from trying to gather information on the subject and process it into a learn-able and teachable lesson plan has been both amusing and difficult. Amusing, because of all of the information that is out in the vast backwaters of the internet makes this process worse; and difficult because it seems that everyone has a slightly different approach and opinion to the process including me.
When faced with this kind of process my advice to you is that you really need to apply the K.I.S.S. principle. Keep It Simple Silly. Now throughout this class we have talked about seeing, about exploring the image before us and finding the problems and correcting them. Printing is just another part of that seeing puzzle that needs to be addressed and settled; in order for you to have the confidence to move forward and believe that what you are doing with image processing is in control. Let’s try to break it down into simple parts.
Getting Control: Step 1 Analysis
First of all let me be 100% clear on the most important thing you need to remember.
If it is not broken…DO NOT BREAK YOUR PRINTING PROCESS !!!
Now, if you have a calibration print that you use for color correction or monitor checking you are ahead of the game. If you do not have a calibration print you need to figure a few things out.
Do you want to print at home or through a service?
In the example below I am going to outline my journey of discovery about my printing service.
The answer to the simple question above will drive most of the decisions you are going to make about printing and outputs. An example of these decisions is if you choose printing through a service, a service that produces quality prints, that service should have a “color profile” of their printer you can download and install into your system. These color profiles are an important and some would say critical part of the process and if you are going to produce any quality you need to understand them so that you can choose to ignore or use them…More on that topic later.
As I started my journey to the “perfect print” output I needed to understand where I was so that I could figure out where I wanted to go.
Again, this sounds simple but most people never get this far. Most either print to their own printer and accept the results..(i.e. a good snapshot as a sort of nice looking 4X6 print) or they copy the image to a portable media device and/or upload to a website and then accept the prints that come back. Never mind that they are not satisfied with the results at least they have a print…
My Process analysis started with a print of one of my show images to the local Costco warehouse. I wanted to see what my image looked like printed by someone else’s hardware. I knew my Printer was unsatisfactory due to the physical size limits of a cheap day to day printer. I needed some input data and they are cheap for moderate sized prints. I saved my image as sRGB and Uploaded it to Costco. They charged me a little over $5 US for a 16 X 20 print. I went to pick up my print 24 hours later and my education had just begun.
The results from Costco were telling; My image while technically correct in color was severely lacking in tonality and range. The highlights I had worked so hard for had no detail, the shadows were muddy and empty. It was a cheap print and a valuable lesson; I could tell that I was going to have to work a bit harder to get my process working for me rather than settling for the results handed to me. My first thought was “Rats..Now what?” I had heard good things about Costco and was genuinely excited to be able to get my large prints fast and cheap. Oh Well! My Second thought was “Goodness…16 X 20 cuts off way too much of my image and I was going to have to print in the original size ratio if I was going to carry the impact and tell the visual story I wanted to tell. Neither of the revelations would have come about if I had not taken the chance and made the print. Costco was definitely out for this project but a new source for quick and dirty printing that I still keep in my head when working for output.
My next target was my regular processor for the Commercial work I do. I held off risking any change to the system I use because while it did great work for skin tones and portraiture I was now printing photographic landscapes scenes with vibrant colors. I needed a starting point. When I looked back on my printing process over the last few years; I mean really thought it through, I came to the sudden realization that I had been incredibly lucky. I had only once profiled my system with the printing plant and I had never done a complete test to see where I could make any effective change.
I called the printing service plant and asked to talk to someone in Technical Support. I knew the sales staff would know what to do but, I wanted to know how to do it correctly. The technician I spoke with asked me a few questions, how long had I been using their service? Had I installed a color profile from them before? What was my goal? He then gave me an overview of the process I would be completing and the one that I will now pass on to you.
Camera Color = Monitor Color = Printer Color = Print Color.
We need to make them all work together and then your prints will look like they should. The technician asked me about my camera (Nikon D200) and if I shoot in RAW (I do). He then asked me what color space I had assigned to my default conversion tool ? (Adobe Camera Raw [ACR]). I had never thought about it before, but I distinctly remember now that my printer used to really be able to make my prints right out of the camera look very nice. It appears my have attempted process changes from over the years, slowly accumulating like dust in the corner, had added up to poor print quality from my local printer.
We began the specific analysis of my PC and it’s output problem…
I know now that my switch over to RAW lead me to my loss of confidence in my home printer. This is because my RAW converter was changing the profile from RAW out of the camera to Adobe RGB coming out of the RAW converter into Photoshop. I winced… Next he asked me what profile I was assigning when I saved the image? I check for him in the “Save As Dialog” and winced again as I read it out loud that… I was outputting to sRGB IEC61966-2.1-Gamma 1.4. Don’t ask me how but I had obviously messed up my “save as” output.
So now from my existing position I was shooting RAW, Processing Adobe RGB, and attempting to output to sRGBIEC61966-2.1-Gamma 1.4… Ugh! I was lucky in that my printers default profile was set to the same color space as the output image otherwise I might have had to commit a ritual suicide with a very dull spoon or possibly with the dull edge of lifeless color that was being spit out of my printer.
Getting Control: Step 2 Data Collection
Having figured out that I had some serious mismatched color spaces I then asked what the next steps were. The technician then explained to me how I was going to get my system aligned with theirs and then the steps I needed to take to test it. We knew I had the wrong color profile being assigned in Camera Raw so step 1 was to change it to something I could print accurately out of. I was fortunate in that the default profile they would be sending me for their process was in fact a version of sRGB that I was already trying to save to. Their version was slightly different though and to finalize my process with them I would need to install their profile on my system and select it.
** What I had learned so far was that I needed as closely as possible to have all of the devices that touch my image agree on the outcomes.
To fix the Camera Raw issue I needed simply to open an Image in Camera Raw and change the default color space settings. You do this by clicking on the hot link in the bottom of the ACR window circled in Red below.
Once you click on the link you get a small dialog box that Allows you to make some settings changes. In my case I needed to change from Adobe RGB to sRGBIEC61966-2.1. in the space pull down area in the form that opens.
Making that simple change made sense and left me feeling like I already knew things would get better for my process 2 parts agreed on the color space. The technician next asked me to check the color space I saved into the images when I saved. To do that I opened a Photoshop “Save As” box. I needed to verify that the check box to embed the profile was selected and that it was the same as the Camera Raw settings. I was again lucky in that those were my settings.
Now having made all the setting changes the Technician asked me if I had their standard print file. I did have it because I had downloaded it from their website and stored it in a folder. He told me to open the file and make what ever changes I felt I needed to get to the best image on my screen as possible then to save the file and send it in for a calibration print.
He asked me to make no changes to my system in the meantime and to be patient as the calibration prints are turned around in 24 hours and shipped back. He told me I should have a print from them by the 3rd working day after our call was complete. Further, that once I had the print I had some decisions to make regarding my monitor that I was looking at and how I would make the changes needed to view the files as closely as possible for the output I was going to get. Needless to say my gears were really turning and I was excited to see my Cal Print.
Getting Control Step 3: Taking Action
The Calibration Print:
My Cal Print came back in a few days and I decided I needed to be in the right frame of mind to really see what I was looking at. I opened the box and then I walked away from it. I did not take the print out and immediately go to work on the problems I might find. A few things were working against me and I needed to be clear in my vision and thinking before I moved forward.
I was anxious to see the print and excited to get working on a fix but I knew from past experience that I would not see everything in the image if I took it in while overly excited or anxious. I needed to get calm. I took a walk and thought about the possibilities of what I might find and the fear that I had that I would find a total mess in the print that needed a complete revision and re-thinking of the process. I walked until I was OK with that thought and ready for whatever work presented itself to me.
I arrived home from my walk and went casually to the box with the print in it. I opened the box and pulled out the packaged print. I was surprised to find 2 prints in the package. My processed print and a copy of the original calibration print marked as original and it had 0.0 in three fields of an inset added to the right hand lower corner over part of the gray square.
The values listed were:
I then looked at the print I sent in labeled Customer Calibration Print and having the same three lines of data. My values were listed as Color 0.0, (Yea! Curvemeister) Exposure +0.1, (hmmm) and Gamma: +1.0. I looked at the prints side by side in normal daylight and made the following visual analysis of my print.
1) The Color looked great. saturation and purity were very good and I was excited to know that my prints would be color correct in my current configuration.
2) The tonality was off. My print looked darker by about a 1/4 to 1/2 stop and the shadow details were not as good as I wanted. I made a note to discuss this with the lab and with Mike Russell.
3) Overall contrast looked slightly flat. I was worried I had made a curve mistake and taken out some of the mid tone contrast.
I next took both prints to my monitor and began looking at the monitor vs. the original print from the processor. My monitor showed the details and the tonality that I was seeing in the original print. Now I had a problem…Why did my correction of the image match the original on my display but not my printed results? My print was darker and had less contrast as compared to my monitor as well. It was time to look at my monitor but I wanted a second and possibly a third opinion. I was talking about messing with my monitor calibration and well, I like my monitor settings and did not want change them.
Those of you who have known me for a while understand that I profile my monitor about once a month to put some peace in my mind that the display is fairly close to accurate and that I can generally rule it out as a cause of concern for my image corrections and I use and Eye ONE2 monitor calibration tool. well, my Cal Print just threw that whole process into question.
This quite frankly was almost going too far for me. I was certainly not looking forward to making a change to the monitor and getting worse prints back as a result. My rational was that since the monitor was Additive <Transmittance> visually and my prints were Subtractive <Reflective> I might not be able to reconcile them 100%. To define these things is really quite simple to make them match…that is the challenge.
Additive color occurs when you add colored light to a black screen resulting in color displayed. (Think theater lighting) My LED monitor uses a “white” LED light balanced to 5500 Kelvin as the basis for display and then adds colored filters over the display to make the color visible. Full black occurs when all of the pigment is turned on and blocks all of the light my monitor is capable of blocking, the more light allowed to pass the filters the whiter the image.
Subtractive color occurs when you use a sheet of white paper and add pigment to it to subtract color from white to display the image. The more pigment the darker the image. (Think CMYK) This difference makes the corrections sort of inverted because the solution to one might add more to the problem for the other. On the surface I looked at my print and thought “Well it’s too dark, I need to add brightness to the monitor so that the image looks right in the print.” It was right in that I had to change my brightness but It was not right that I needed to add brightness to the monitor. I know now that it is counter intuitive but I needed to make my monitor darker. WHOA!…Hold it right there…All STOP….I like my monitor right where it is and I was willing to do many things but…DARKEN MY MONITOR?? I needed a better opinion than my own intuition. I called Mike Russell.
My weekly calls to Mike Russell are the highlight of my Friday. We discuss many wide ranging topics and cover the latest changes we are making to the Curvemister program as well as the website, this class, and life the universe and everything else. This week I was going to throw a big fat curve-ball at Mike and I hoped he would be able to talk some sense into me. I started the conversation with Mike by asking him if he had ever done a full system calibration for printing and what his thoughts on it were. I’ll paraphrase here because I do not want to put words into his mouth. Mike informed me that he used to be fan of calibration and that he had followed the principles of the whole thing right down to writing some tools for helping to check monitor and print colors. I was suddenly worried…I thought he was going to tell me to go get a densitometer and start over…I braced myself… Much to my delight he followed up with “but then I got smart!”
The 800 Pound Gorilla:
The conversation with Mike was one that I wish I had recorded because he clarified a few things for me that never seemed to make any sense. You see color monitors and how color is displayed is in a constant state of conflict between the major OS writers. Apple has it’s idea of what to do with color and Microsoft has it’s ideas and they do not agree. Today, we have Android and a host of other systems that are used to display our images and well for the most part they all agree on how to display an image they often differ on how to model that display, then you take that nice color image and try to print it and by the time you are done it indeed seems like the system is stacked against you from the get go. It actually is…
The lack of a universal standard is driving the industry to abandon many good choices in favor of something that “just works” on all systems and as time marches forward we are finding that the most widely accepted color space for display and now even for printing is sRGB. While there is still variation in the exact “version” of the sRGB you use for the most part it is sRGB and your files will most likely be printed on an 8 bit – sRGB printer. This is not going to go away and nobody really voted it into power.
Mike and I discussed my problem with the density of my print and during the conversation he noted that my Calibration Print came back with a +1.0 gamma adjustment. I had skipped over that in my analysis and that for me was the key. Mike asked me to check the Gamma settings from my Eye One2 device and see what they were. Mine were set to 5500 K for color and 2.2 for Gamma. Those were correct so I made a note to ask the processor company what they thought of that gamma addition. After sending the file to Mike and having him look at it visually and checking some things in CM using the hue clocks we agreed that I was to change nothing until given a VERY valid reason by the print processor company. Mike also suggested that my sample size was too small and that one calibration print was not a valid sample since as we all have seen you can have very different results from a image depending on who corrects it and how it is processed over all. He told me I needed to print my entire show, all 20 images at a similar ratio but smaller size. Some prints would tell me more about what was going on than others but he predicted that overall I would be better off doing that before ordering full sized prints.
I called my lab and asked again for technical support. I was pleasantly surprised to find myself talking to the same person as the previous call and he even remembered talking to me. This was a huge help. I began by describing my analysis to him and relating my reluctance to change the monitor settings too much since I was comfortable with them and I was getting really good output to the web which is where the most of my work was going.
I told him about the suggestion to print all of the images and he suggested making a composite print instead of singles and having a very large print made with 5 images inside of the composite. This he told me would average out the individual adjustments and give me a better understanding of each image since the primary variables of process chemistry would be less likely to effect a single print and that the computer analysis software would have to compromise and average my images rather than possibly over adjust a single image. The print technician also advised me not to change my monitor and that if I wanted to try to make a change to 2 or 3 images in a composite he recommended using one that was bright and one that was dark, that I should make a small text note in a neutral gray box with black letters in the corner of each image I changed detailing the change so I knew what I had done and verify it’s effectiveness.
I spent an hour or so preparing the composite prints and I made a small L channel adjustment to 2 prints on one page to see if I could make the prints look better. my adjustment was to make the L channel curve brighter by 10 as measured by 3 hue clocks set to a shadow a highlight and a mid-tone. if the L value was 20 I made it 30. that was the only change to the file and I saved them as a new file so I did not correct my final images again. I sent the prints out and waited…
4 days later a very large box was waiting for me outside my door from the processor and I was again excited. This time I opened the prints and pulled them out…I wanted results…to my surprise I did not get what I wanted with the exception of the two prints I adjusted. After cutting the prints apart into individual images I sat down and looked at them with a critical eye. I had made 11 X 17 inch prints so I could see into the details easily and this was a real advantage.
What I found was that the consistency of the prints was outstanding and that the color was just amazing. In the two prints I had made the 10 point change on they were in my opinion vastly superior to the others. I had my solution. I had saved my curve so I was going to be able to apply it to each image in turn and assess the changes before saving and printing.
OK, so this little lesson is more than a story of personal triumph and persistence. There are lessons here that I shall pull into a simple summary.
- Verify your color space and follow it all the way to the finished product. In other words make sure your image color space matches your output or display color space regardless of the “working space you use.
- Trust your instincts. If you think something is wrong it generally is. Collect data and use the lessons from this class to assess your image output.
- Get help and second opinions. My initial reaction was to make changes. If I had I believe I would have been worse off.
- Get your monitor calibrated for what is normal and then work forward to a finished image. You can rent or buy cheaply a color calibration device.
- Test more than one image as a part of this process. My composite prints were the single most helpful thing I did as a part of this process.
- Use your critical eye to diagnose issues and formulate a plan. Think, Go Slow, think some more.
- Not every problem requires you to change the hardware settings. Be creative and trust your working knowledge.
Assignment: Printing Ring-Around (Total recommended time 4-6 hours)
Using Curvemeister and Photoshop take one of your images (select an image that you trust as being color correct – a colored square, or a gray card held by a person would be great for this) and create a printed visual reference chart according to the directions below:
- Create a new image in Photoshop using a blank background and place your color correct image in the center (sized so that you can fit 6 images around it in a circle).
- Copy your re-sized “Master Image” 6 times (place each copy on a separate layer); name these copies: Red, Yellow, Green, Cyan, Blue, Magenta. Change their blend modes to ‘Color’.
- Selecting the Red layer, open Curvemeister, and adjust the color in the Red channel– moving the ¼ tone, midpoint, and ¾ tone upwards by 5 points. Return to Photoshop.
- Repeat this process for the other layers, selecting the appropriate channel in CM (move the midpoints downwards to add Yellow, Cyan and Magenta casts).
- You should now have an R, G, B, C, M, Y adjusted version of your image. Position your images together around a the color correct central image and print it in whatever method you choose for your general printing.
- Repeat this process five more times (adjusting the midpoint by 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 points).
- You should end up with 6 pages showing you the visible printed effect of a 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 point shift. Your pages will look like Photoshop’s ‘Variation’ dialog box.
- Print the image via your usual print output process. For those of you without Printers use whatever method you currently use to produce a print.
Assignment: Repeat Ring Around for Brightness…(Total recommended time 1-2 hours)
- Take the original color correct image, again create 6 copies of it and using Curvemeister adjust the L channel of LAB to move a the mid-tone +/- 5, 10, 20 points. Put the lighter ones together and the darker ones together so that you have a broad range of brightness values.
- Print the image via your usual print output process. For those of you without Printers use whatever method you currently use to produce a print.
Take some time after you have printed your images to go to a well lit, daylight room and look at your images. Notice how very small color shifts are difficult to actually see. Just because we can measure them does not mean that we have to fix them completely. There is room in the printed image to be less than perfect on some of our corrections. We need to be aware that fighting for the last few points of color is less important than the overall look of the image. I’m not saying that we shouldn’t fight for these slight corrections – just that they might not be as important as we have been taught or not as important as other items in the image. Look at the exposure reference image. Notice how much detail in the shadows appears as you add brightness to the image and open the image up. Notice also that the highlight details quickly disappear. Compare these images to your monitor under the general lighting conditions you usually work with. Where do they match up visually? Do your prints match your monitor? Should they? ______________________________________________________________________________
Assignment: Your Opinion Counts (Total recommended time 5-10 minutes)
Let’s discuss your opinions in the forum. Please post your thoughts about your monitor, your prints, and your perceptions for discussion.
Having completed the assignments above you should have a better understanding about the difference between your monitor and the details output by the file to the print. Remember that the computer screen will generally show you 96-110 PPI. The file you are working on may have a resolution between 150/360 PPI – and in some cases much more. The information you cannot see is very important and you need to learn ways to visualize the data in the file.
To be assigned…